Step By Step Guide On How Do Water Filters Work

Do you know how do water filters work? What’s the quality of water when it is not filtered? Is clearn water always safe? When you look at water in a bottle or a glass, you will see the water is clear. You may think it is safe for drinking. In America the case is usual.

However, the cleanest water may contain particles that are not visible to naked eyes. Some small types of minerals the in the water. They affect the taste of the water.

At the same time, the minerals are very harmful. In the developing countries, sources of water like rivers’ water are compacted with protozoa, bacteria, and some other parasites.

They may make you ill or sometimes may kill you. Over 780 million people in the whole world are fighting with this problem. So you may read the article on how do water filters work to save you from this problem.

Thanks, the water filter is made to keep yourself and your body away from the nasty buggers from the water. But now the question how accurately a filter can change a potential poison into the necessary level to survive?

The idea behind the device is very simple. Grip all the undesirables and pass water through it. It may be completed with microscopic holes or pores. The size of the pores is less than 1/1000th of a millimeter. Pass molecules of water through it. They are very small for viruses and bacteria.

The concept of the design is very simple. Store all the undesired water and let clean water through.

There are 2 ways of filtration systems to treat water. These are:

  • Home Filters
  • Municipal water filtration treatment

Matters you like to remove. What you like to stop removing for some circumstances. The names are as follows:

  • Carbon/Activated Carbon
  • Ceramic
  • Carbon Block
  • Granulated Activated Carbon
  • Distillation: The system raises
  • Deionization
  • Ion Exchange
  • Fibredyne block
  • Ozone
  • Mechanical Filters
  • UV (ultraviolet)
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Water Softeners

Municipal Treatment

In the filtration system, lots of materials are used. It depends on the water or where it is being filtered. In the municipal treatment, water passes through a screen or other polymers to take out particles like leaves, sticks or debris.

Then it goes through a series of filters made of sands. Sometimes it passes through biological filters like algae.

Municipal Treatment

The purpose is to remove protozoa or dangerous bacteria. And finally add some powder or liquid, bubbling in ozone gas, goes through ultraviolet light. They can remove harmful pathogens from water. In this stage, water becomes free from dangerous contaminants and large particles before reaching at home for use.

From Treatment Plant to Home

At the time of making the journey of water from the municipal plant to the homes, the aging infrastructure can affect the water at your home. Ageing wastewater system may leak untreated sewage to the surface water.

The old pipes of the system can enter lead, and some other heavy metals in the way of water. So the residential water filters play a very significant role.

Home Filters

Most of the water filters that the customers use are made from the activated carbon. The carbon is very popular as a small amount has a large surface area. One gram of activated carbon has the surface area of 4 tennis courts.

The area is very big meaning that it can hold great numbers of pollutants or organic compact. In PUR water filter there is coconut shell activated carbon as the pores are very small than the other carbon filters.

Home Filters

So the PUR can remove chlorine, chemicals and pharmaceuticals and heavy metals like mercury and lead. It can remove organic compounds which affect the taste and smell of water.

It removes mineral ions like magnesium, calcium, fluoride that are good for the body and develops the taste of water.

The water filter is the only thing that will ensure you that your water is safe and good tasting. There are many options in the market. Such as a faucet filters water directly from the tap.

A pitcher that is posted on the countertop or the refrigerator. If you go for camping or hiking, you must need safe drinking water, needless to say.

The water filter is the most desired way to ensure drinking water or great tasting water. The price of the product is affordable and comes with varieties of factors.

The water filter has a great value than the bottled water. What the water comes from the tap is very tasty or better than the bottled water.

In bottled water, a lot of plastics are used. To produce plastic bottle about 1, 00,000 cars are running with the great amount of oil.

The basics of common water filter technologies

The basics of common water filter technologies

Carbon/Activated Carbon

The activated carbons have the power to remove the contaminant from water. The filters are very effective. Some filters remove chlorine and upgrade the taste and the odor.

There are some other that removes a large number of contaminants like lead, mercury, volatile, asbestos, and organic compounds (VOCs).

At last, the activated carbon cannot remove pollutants like fluoride, arsenic, nitrate, hexavalent chromium and perchlorate. There are two types of carbon filters like granulated activated carbon and carbon block.

Carbon Block

There is more pulverized activated carbon in the Carbon block filters. It is shaped into the block with high pressure. They are more effective than the granulated activated carbons filters as it contains more area. If they quickly flow water, they are more effective.

Granulated Activated Carbon

There are grains of activated carbon in these filters. The carbon block is not more effective than the filters as it has smaller activated carbon surface. The effectiveness also depends on the flow of the water.


The ceramic filter has a tiny hole in which it holds contaminants like cysts and sediments. They are failed to remove the chemical contaminant.



The filter applies an ion exchange method to remove mineral salts, and some other electrically charged molecules from water. The method fails to remove nonionic contaminants like trihalomethanes or microorganisms. EWG’s filter guide will not include filters based rely on the technology.

Distillation: The system raises

The system raises the temperature high to the vaporize level and the steam back to the water. It can remove many bacteria, minerals, viruses and chemicals that have a high boiling point. WEG’s never uses such type of filter relied on this technology.

Fibredyne block

It is the proprietary type of carbon block filter which demands to contain higher sediment catching capacity than the other carbon block filters.

Ion Exchange

Ion exchange is a system which is used for softening water. Here hard water is softened by altering changing the calcium and magnesium ions available in hard water.

The names of the ions are hydrogen or sodium ions. Ion exchange eliminates typically hard minerals. It reduces Limescale and makes water fit for applications.

It is preserved at a constant high temperature for example in commercial coffee machines.

Ion exchange is usually carried out by applying an ion exchange resin. This comes in the form of little beads. Water softeners use the same type of adhesive.

It needs to change periodically to save the resin from becoming ineffective. Since the filter is customarily sealed unit, you can easily replace a new screen.

Here important thing is that calcium treatment units (CTUs) may be returned to the supplier and regenerated.

Resins which use sodium ions aren’t fit for using it in a drinking water filter. The reason is that the amount of salt is present in drinking water measuring 200 mg/ liers.

Since sodium ion develops salt levels, you can choose a hydrogen-based ion-exchanged resin.

Mechanical Filters

The main idea of mechanical filtration is physically removed dirt, sediment and other particles from water.

Here a barrier is used to do so. It can remove a basic mesh to filter out bigger debris. A ceramic filter has a very complex structure for ultra-fine filtration of pathogenic organisms.

A filter which uses mechanical filtration has a micron rating. It implies how useful the screen regarding the size of the particles. The standard scores you notice are:

  • 5 micron –It can remove most particles which are impossible to see by naked eyes.
  • 1 micron –This eliminates particles which are very small and even impossible to look at without a microscope.
  • 0.5 micron – Will take away cysts (cryptosporidium and giardia).


Sequestration is nothing but chemically isolating a substance. Food grade polyphosphate is usually used to sequester magnesium and calcium minerals in water filters that cause corrosion and limescale.

Polyphosphate is introduced in little amount and it protects scale instead of eradicating it.  Polyphosphate doesn’t soften water instead it preserved minerals within the solution. Moreover, this resists forming scale on any surfaces when they come in contact with.

Scale inhibition isn’t possible for the presence of hard materials in water. So water softening named as ion exchange is suggested for water where the alkalinity level is 180 or more.

It is instrumental where water is preserved at a fixed temperature of 95 degrees or more.


Ozone has the power to destroy bacteria and the other microorganism. Sometimes it is used with filtering technologies. The system is not effective enough to kill chemical contaminants. EWG’ does not use such filter relied on this technology.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis

In this method, water goes through a small permeable membrane which removes particles bigger than water molecules.

The RO removes many particles, but it fails to remove activated carbon, having fluoride, arsenic, nitrates, hexavalent chromium. Moreover, RO fails to remove trihalomethanes, chlorine, or volatile organic chemicals.

There are lots of Osmosis system which has activated carbons. But they cannot remove other contaminants. The quality depends on the carbon filters and the membrane system.

Customers need to know that RO filters use 3 to 20 times more water. And only wastewater. Besides they are best for cooking and drinking only.

UV (ultraviolet)

The system sometimes uses ultraviolet rays to destroy bacteria or some other microorganism. They do not remove chemical contaminants. EWG’s does not offer such kind of filter based technology.

Water Softeners

The technique is used to an ion exchange system to lessen the level of magnesium, calcium, barium and few forms of radium. They fail to remove other contaminants.

As water softener replaces magnesium and calcium with sodium. The treated water contains high sodium content.

There are different opinions on softened water. Doctors advise some patient not to take softened water. As it is similar to use water in gardening or watering plants.

Watch The Video on How do water filters work


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